Basque

Consonants
 

plosives        
 
Symbol   
 Word 
Transcription
 
 
p
apeza
apes`a
unvoiced bilabial plosive
 
b
begia
beGia
voiced bilabial plosive
 
t
etorri
etorri
unvoiced  dentar plosive 
 
c
ttantta
canca
unvoiced  palatal plosive 
 
d
denda
denda
voiced dental plosive
 
k
ekarri
ekarri
unvoiced  velar plosive
 
g
gaia
gaia
voiced velar plosive
affricates
 
 
 
 
 
tS
txikia
tSikia
unvoiced  front pre-palatal  affricate
 
ts
atso
atso
unvoiced  alveolar affricate
 
ts`
atzo
ats`o
unvoiced back alveolar affricate
 
gj
onddo
ongjo
voiced palatal affricate
fricatives
 
 
 
 
 
jj
leoia
leojja
voiced palatal fricative
 
f
afaria
afaria
unvoiced        labiodental fricative
 
B
hamabi
amaBi (= /b/) 
voiced bilabial approximant
 
T
perez
pereT
unvoiced  interdental fricative
 
D
adiskide
 aDiskiDe (= /d/)
voiced dental approximant
 
s
hasi
asi
unvoiced   alveolar fricative
 
s`
zoroa
s`oroa
unvoiced back alveolar fricative
 
S
xoxoa
SoSoa
unvoiced prepalatal fricative
 
x
ijito
ixito
unvoiced velar fricative
 
G
agindu
aGindu (= /g/) 
voiced velar fricative approximant
nasals
 
 
 
 
 
m
ama
ama
voiced bilabial nasal
 
n
neska
neska
voiced alveolar nasal
 
J
ñabar
JaBarr
voiced palatal nasal
liquids
 
 
 
 
 
l
lana
lana
voiced alveolar lateral
 
L
iluna
iLuna
voiced palatal lateral
 
r
dirua
dirua
voiced alveolar vibrate_single
 
rr 
arrunta 
arrunta
voiced alveolar vibrate_multiple
semivowels
 
 
 
 
 
j
aita
ajta
semivowel front_palatal close
 
w
euskera  
ewskera
semivowel back_velar close
Vowels:
 
 
 
 
 
i
ipar
iparr
vowel front close unrounded
 
e
hemen
emen
vowel front mid unrounded
 
a
ama
ama
vowel central open unrounded
 
o
oso 
oso
vowel back mide rounded
 
u
umore
umore
vowel back close rounded
 
 
 
 
 

In addition there are important allophonic and dialectal variants :

Vowels
 
 
 
 
 
y
büria
Byria 
vowel back   1
fricative
 
 
 
 
 
Z
bazkaria
bas`kariZa
voiced pre-palatal ficative  2
 
h
hau
hau
unvoiced glotal fricative 1
aspirated plosives
 
 
 
 
 
ph
apheza
aphes`a
unvoiced labial aspirated 1
 
kh
ekharri
ekharri
unvoiced velar aspirated 1
 
th
ethorri
ethorri
unvoiced dental aspirated 1
 
 
 
 
 
    
1-             Northern dialects
2-             Biscaian dialect